A moderately-priced washing machine that is mostly found in households flaunts a motor having the following specifications.
1. Single Phase motor
2. Its speed is around the 1300-1400 RPM mark.
3. Its power rating is around 5-6 HP.
4. The voltage rating is 220 V.
5. Its dimension is that of a regular one with a 1-inch height, weighing around 2-3 kgs.
The average washing machine motor that is usually used in the majority of washing machines flaunts the above specifications. Many models can be found where a few factors vary, but in essence, the motor’s electrical specification remains similar. It is ergonomically designed to fit within the physical setup of any washing machine, and its power specifications are best suited for daily washing sessions with the average household load. Let us delve deeper into some details regarding washing machine motor specifications and browse through some popular models available in the market.
Types Of Motor Used In Washing Machine
The motor is undeniably the principal part when it comes to the operability of the washing machine. Technically, it is in charge of converting the electrical energy into sufficient amounts of mechanical energy required to wash the load inside the bucket. Standard washing machines have been in use since the late 90s, and with time they have developed considerably. Newer features have enabled washing machines to become more than what they were intended to be initially. Yet, the basic functions of wash, rinse, and spin remains similar.
Coming back to the motor being used inside the washing machine, primarily washing machines have been using the single-phase AC synchronous motor and the split-phase induction motor. Both these variants have been used extensively in a large range of washing machines and have their own ways of functioning.
Let us discuss briefly each.
1. Split Phase Induction Motor
a) A split-phase induction motor has a wide area of application, the washing machine being one of the major ones. The significant features of a split induction motor are given below.
b) The split-phase induction motor starts at 150 to 200 percent of the full load torque associated with a starting current of 6 – 9 times the full load current.
c) The start winding is composed of fine wire. Hence the density of current flow is high and causes the winding to heat up rapidly. In cases where the starting period crosses 5 seconds, the winding runs the risk of burning out. This is then protected by a built-in thermal relay. That is why split-phase motors are best suited for applications where the starting periods aren’t much frequent.
d) Split phase induction motors are cheaper and hence very popular in the market.
e) These are, in essence, constant-speed motors with a variation of 2-4 percent ranging from no load to full load.
f) In applications where the starting torque required is moderate and the starting time periods are abrupt and infrequent, these motors serve the purpose best. The best examples of their applications are oil burners, fans, machine tools of small sizes, and of course, washing machines.
g) Their power ratings are usually within the range 60-250 W.
2. Single Phase AC Synchronous Model
In case of a single phase synchronous motor the current flow through the coil as well as the back emf changes with respect to the speed of the rotating motor. When it is at lower rotational speeds the back emf is small and hence a large current flows through the motor coils causing a magnetic saturation inside the magnetic circuit. These motors are brushless and do not need an inverter. Hence these are low in costs as well and find extensive applicability.
How Does The Usual Washing Machine Motor Work?
The usual electric motors being used in washing machines deploy the common attraction and repulsion of magnetic fields while operating. Older models use induction motors, which are driven through a gearbox. Modern machines use motors having permanent magnet field poles, which are controlled with the help of a microprocessor. The microprocessor facilitates easy speed and direction controlling of the motor. The permanent field poles are actually windings around the iron cores, which pass a current through each of those winding and, in turn, repels and attracts the permanent magnets inside the rotor, making it rotate at the desired speeds.
Common Motor Issues That Make The Washing Machine Malfunctions
The motor of the washing machine is basically the central unit that is responsible for driving the entire device. Hence, if it fails to operate, nothing would essentially work. That is why most washing machine issues boil down to the motor as there is a strong chance that they are connected some way or the other to the motor. It is pretty obvious as well because it is the motor that provides the necessary power to all the internally functional elements of the machine, such as the gearbox, the pump, the clutch, and the agitator, etc.
The motor malfunctioning will cause most other parts to fall apart as well. We have provided the most common washing machine issues whose root causes are related to the motor of the machine.
1. Washer Failing To Pump Or/And Spin
The most common problem we occasionally face with the washer is that it fails to spin as well as pump the water in and out. This can occur while the motor is running and also when it is not. In the latter case, the problem might be with the lid switch. The lid switch is placed inside the machine near the frame of the door. Check it for defects, and if found, it might need replacement.
In cases, the water might continue being pumped in and out, but the washer ceases to spin. This might also occur due to a defective lid switch. Another possible factor that might cause this is a damaged coupler. A coupler is a connector made of rubber or plastic that connects the transmission to the motor shaft. If the coupler breaks down, there are no other ways there than a replacement. The drive motor can also begin to malfunction and cause a similar problem. Drive motors are technically designed to move in opposite directions. There is a possibility that it can work in one direction and burn out while moving in the other. In case the drive motor fails, it also needs a replacement. Other possible culprits in this regard are the worn clutch or a broken belt.
2. Washer Fails To Agitate
The agitator of the washing machine is designed to move around the clothes before the spinning cycle begins. In cases, the washer fails to agitate owing to a variety of things, including a worn clutch or belt, defective lid switch or damaged coupler inside the motor, failed pulley or drive motor, and even the transmission. If the clutch cable has worn out, one can notice black substances underneath the washer on the ground. This is an indication that the clutch requires to be replaced.
3. Clothes Not Drying Properly
The spin cycle leaves the clothes dry inside the washer after it terminates. If the washer malfunctions, it might cause the clothes to remain wet after the cycle. The motor coupler could possibly be the culprit in this case as well. It is also somewhat dependent on the brand of the washer. For Maytag brands, the cause could be a worn-out belt, while in the case of General Electric, it could be the worn out clutch. Occasional variations might also be observed.
4. All The Cycles Facing Issues
When you observe each of the cycles throwing up some issue or the other, the chances are high that the drive motor is at fault. This would hence need to be replaced. In the case of General Electric washing machines, the automatic lever of the clutch might face failure and would need to be tended to by a technician.
Most issues with washing machines are usually confined to a few components only, especially the washer motor. The motor is responsible for driving the major components that allow the washer bucket to be filled up with water and then perform the other associated tasks such as drain, spin, and agitate. Smaller parts can be fixed by us, but larger issues might require an expert technician to look into and possibly replace the main component.
Common Issues And The Principal Faults
|Issues With Machine||Faults To Check|
|Washer not pumping or spinning||The issue with the Lid switch|
|Washer spinning but not pumping||Damaged coupler, drive motor, or lid switch.|
|Cycles facing issues||Defective drive motor|
|Washer failing to agitate||Worn out clutch or belt, defective drive motor|
The washing machine is arguably one of the most used household appliances and is of the utmost significance—the motor of the washing machine functions as the primary unit driving all its actions. Usually, older machines deploy a split-phase induction motor, which is a very common motor used in such appliances due to their cheap availability. In case the motor fails to function, then the washing machine is bound to throw up issues that will hinder the usual operability of the washing machine. Common washing machine issues owe its roots principally to the irregular functioning of the motor. They are mentioned above and hence can be taken care of.