A toaster uses infrared radiators to dry and char your bread on both sides, making it edible in a few minutes without any human intervention. Electric toasters can toast bread in a few minutes. This quick functioning of a toaster can be attributed to a phenomenon called radiation. The heat radiations from a toaster make your toast ready and pop it out with the help of a spring-loaded tray based on a set timer.
What Is Thermal Radiation, And How Is It Used In A Toaster?
Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy (heat) through space or through a material medium. In simpler terms, thermal radiation is the transfer of heat from an object with a higher temperature to an object with lower temperature when the objects are not in direct physical contact with each other. The object with a higher temperature is called a thermal radiator.
An electric toaster works by converting electric energy into heat energy, which in turn is responsible for toasting bread. This is achieved by the inner circuitry of an electric toaster.
If you look inside your toaster, you will see several strings of metal facing the area where you put your bread slices to be toasted. These metal strings are used as thermal radiators in the toaster. When you plug your toaster in an electric socket, the electricity passes through these metal strings. These metal strings are connected but are spread in such a way that they cover the entire surface so that the bread slice can be toasted evenly. The electricity is converted into heat, and the metal strings start glowing. When the metal becomes red hot, it starts emitting heat in the form of radiation. This heat is directed towards your bread slices to make them a toast.
The process is faster when the wires are thinner, and a greater amount of electricity is passed through them. The constant emission of heat through these radiators on both sides of the bread slice makes sure the bread is toasted evenly on both sides. This makes sure that you do not need to flip your bread to cook it on both sides.
Most Of The Toasters Have Two Additional Features.
|i) A spring-loaded tray||I) When the toast is ready, take it out of the toaster to avoid further cooking. II) It avoids the need to take it out manually. III) It is also a safer option as the inside parts of a toaster are very hot, and you should avoid touching the metal strings.|
|ii) A timer||I) Turns off the toaster after a specific time to avoid the toast getting burnt.II) Releases the spring-loaded tray to pop out the toast.|
Modern toasters can also use a thermostat. A thermostat is electrical or mechanical devices that turn a circuit off when it reaches a specified temperature. The controller can shift the placing of a thermostat in a circuit and can help control the temperature.
How Is Infrared Radiation Created In A Toaster?
The most common way a toaster creates infrared radiation is by using nichrome wires wrapped on a mica sheet.
Nichrome is an alloy of chromium and nickel. It contains 80% nickel mixed with 20% chromium. These metal wires are resistant to heat and electricity. So, even a small wire can get quite hot and start emitting heat. The heat resistance helps the metal to endure such high temperature. This method of heating is also called Joule heating as it relies on the resistance of a metal to withstand high temperature. Nichrome also has a very high melting point. Another advantage of using nichrome is that it is easier to shape it, and it does not expand much.
Nichrome wires are a better alternative for a toaster than iron and copper wire. Copper wires are not as resistant to electricity and heat as nichrome wires. And, iron wires would rust rapidly at high temperatures. Hence, they are not suitable for a toaster that requires the wires to be red hot to start emitting heat radiations. Nichrome wires, on the other hand, do not oxidize when subjected to high temperatures and are suitable for an electric toaster.
Two mica sheets wrapped in nichrome wires are placed in a toaster creating a gap of a couple of inches to fit in the slices of bread. When the bread is placed inside a toaster, the electricity passes through these wires, and the molecular collision makes the metal extremely hot.
The heating elements on both sides will dry and char the bread, toasting it evenly. When the bread is toasted completely, it can be taken out of the toaster or a toaster with a spring-loaded tray will itself push the slices out.
Can The Radiators In A Toaster Be Hazardous?
Yes, the radiator or the metal strings used in the toaster can be hazardous and even life-threatening if not dealt with caution.
The radiators in a toaster are used to convert electric energy to thermal energy. When the toaster is plugged, and the circuit is complete, a tremendous amount of energy flows through these radiators. You should never try to touch the radiators/ metal wires in a toaster when plugged. Touching it with any metal or any other object can be dangerous and even fatal in many cases. If you have any bread crumbs stuck and you need to take it out, make sure to unplug the toaster before doing so.
This is how a toaster uses electricity to convert it into thermal radiation and toasts bread. The energy used by a toaster is kinetic energy, and the method of heating is called thermal radiation. The heat generated is passed to the bread slice. However, no physical medium is involved. The toasters also include other features like a spring-loaded tray and a timer or a thermostat to make the process easier.